The following research studies were cited by technical experts from BluTech, Carl Zeiss Vision, Essilor, Hoya Vision Care, Jins Eyewear, Reticare and VSP Global who were consulted for “Inside the Blue Boom,” Vision Monday, April 11, 2016:

American Academy of Ophthalmology

American Medical Association, “Light Pollution: Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting”

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices

Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, Effect of Blue Light–Reducing Eye Glasses on Critical Flicker Frequency.

Behar-Cohen F, et al. Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye? Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011. 30: p.239-257.

Chamorro E, et al. Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. PhotochemPhotobiol. 2013. 89: p.468-473.

Chamorro E, et al. Photoprotectiveeffects of blue light absorbing filter against led light exposure on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. J Carcinog Mutagen. 2013. S6: 008. doi:10.4172/2157-2518. S6-008
Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2014, Biological effects of blocking blue and other visible light on the mouse retina.

Fletcher A.E. et. al. (2008) Sunlight exposure, antioxidants, and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(10):1396-1403).

National Center for Biotechnology Information, “Chesapeake Watermen study”

National Center for Biotechnology Information, “Activation of flavin-containing oxidases underlies light-induced production of H2O2 in mammalian cells”

National Eye Institute

National Institute of Health

National Institute of Health

Picaud, S., Arnault, E., New discoveries and therapies in retinal phototoxicity, International Review of Ophthalmic Optics, N68, Spring 2013).

Science. 2002, Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock.

Science. 2002, Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity.

Taylor HR. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, “Chesapeake Watermen study,” 1989;87:802-853.

Taylor HR, West S, Munoz B, et al. The long-term effects of visible light on the eye. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1992; 110:99-104.